PHP is the language in which Magento was written and it als uses Zend Framework architectural design. Magento also uses other open source technologies apart from PHP. Magento uses Apache and Nginx web servers, relies on PHP and Composer, uses MySQL and MySQL Percona as its database for superior performance, flexibility, data security, etc. Require, JQuery, HRML5, CSS3/Less, Knockout are frontends, uses Elasticsearch as search engine, Varnish is used as the HTTP accelerator for high performance, Redis is the cache storage method for quicker response time.
Magento uses four layered architecture viz., domain layer, persistence layer, presentation layer and service layer. Domain layer contains more of business logic and generic data pertains t the business and does not contain specific information or database. The persistence layer is used to map objects to the data stored in database server by utilizing SQL codes, performs data logics such as start and stop process, saving, retrieval, validation, etc. Presentation layer represents the store front such as themes, blocks, layouts, templates, product appearance, widgets, display and also process command interface from users. Service Layer is the key link which communicates between the domain layer and presentation layer, controls API functionality for interoperability.
All commands from the store are interpreted by the service layer for seamless coordination of store behavior. The layered architecture is a main component in separating the front and back end of any design which allows modification of each without affecting each other performance and improved customizations.